The ambrotype, also known as the amphitype, is a specific type of photograph that produces a positive image on a glass surface. This is achieved through the utilization of the wet plate collodion technique. Originating in the United States in the early 1850s, the ambrotype offered a distinct approach to photographic imaging. While the wet plate collodion method itself was developed a few years earlier by Frederick Scott Archer, what sets the ambrotype apart is its use of the glass plate to create a positive image, as opposed to a negative one.
Historical Context of the Ambrotype
Ambrotypes rose to prominence in the early 1850s in the United States. The photographic landscape of the time was dominated by daguerreotypes, which were silver-plated copper sheets that created a highly detailed, albeit singular, image. However, ambrotypes offered several advantages over daguerreotypes. For instance, they were cheaper to produce and required a shorter exposure time, making them more accessible and convenient for the general populace.
Inventor of the Wet Plate Collodion Process
The wet plate collodion process, the underlying technology for ambrotypes, was invented by Frederick Scott Archer a few years prior to the advent of the ambrotype. Archer’s invention was groundbreaking because it allowed for the creation of multiple copies from a single negative, something that was not possible with the daguerreotype method. The wet plate collodion process involved coating a glass plate with a mixture of collodion, a flammable solution of pyroxylin in alcohol and ether, and then sensitizing it with a silver nitrate solution. The plate was then exposed in a camera while still wet and developed immediately. This process could be used to produce either negatives on glass or positives, as in the case of the ambrotype.
Technical Aspects of the Ambrotype
The ambrotype uses the wet plate collodion process but diverges from it in its final presentation. Instead of developing a negative image that needs to be printed onto paper or another medium, the ambrotype utilizes the glass plate as the final positive image. To make the image visible, the back of the glass plate is often coated with a dark material, like black varnish or paper, which allows the positive image to be clearly viewed. The image is then usually encased in a small frame or case for protection and easier handling.
Significance and Impact
The ambrotype had a significant impact on the field of photography and the broader realm of visual culture. It democratized photography by lowering the cost and reducing the time needed to produce an image, which led to a more widespread adoption of photography as a medium. Despite the advent of newer technologies like tintypes and eventually film-based photography, ambrotypes hold an important place in the history of photography, serving as a transitional technology that bridged the gap between early and more modern photographic methods.
Legacy and Preservation
Today, ambrotypes are considered valuable historical artifacts that offer a glimpse into the past. Many museums and private collectors hold ambrotypes in high esteem, and efforts are underway to preserve these delicate glass images for future generations. Preservation techniques often involve specialized climate-controlled storage and careful handling to ensure that these centuries-old photographs are maintained in their original condition for as long as possible.
By understanding the historical, technical, and cultural dimensions of the ambrotype, one can better appreciate its role in the evolution of photography. From its origins in the 1850s United States to its influence on photographic methods and its present-day status as a historical artifact, the ambrotype remains a significant chapter in the story of visual media.