Sapphire

Sapphire (Greek: σάπφειρος; sappheiros, ‘blue stone’, which probably referred instead at the time to lapis lazuli) is a gemstone variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide. Trace amounts of other elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium can give corundum blue, yellow, purple, orange, or a greenish color. Chromium impurities in corundum yield a pink or red tint, the latter being called a ruby. Commonly, sapphires are worn in jewelry.

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