Giza is the second-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and the fourth-largest city in Africa. It lies on the west bank of the Nile, southwest of central Cairo with a population of 8.8 million as of October 2018 according to census records by country officials. Giza is considered to be an extension of the heavily populated Cairo metropolis, which spans lower Egypt as well as Giza. Giza has been a governorate since 1982 and is divided into 10 districts – Giza Governorate is the smallest in terms of area but ranks second by population in Upper Egypt (following Luxor). Giza’s primary income is agriculture. Giza has a wide variety of historic monuments that include Giza Zoo, Giza’s 18th-century urban design, and architecture, pyramids such as the Giza pyramid complex (Giza Necropolis), the Great Sphinx of Giza; an ancient Egyptian monument located on the Giza Plateau southeast of Cairo built during the reign of the Giza King Khafra and his late father Khufu. Giza also has a great number of museums – Giza Plateau Museum, which showcases the history of Giza’s Old and New Towns which highlight Gizas history during medieval times featuring architectural designs and plans from those periods. It includes an exhibit of Giza costumes Giza’s National Museum of Antiquities Giza Archives and Giza’s specialized in Egyptian Mummies housed inside Giza Zoo.
Giza’s western bank is also home to Giza Plateau, a site of numerous ancient Egyptian tombs, temples, and other remains including Memphis – the capital city of Ancient Egypt for over eight dynasties. It is believed that this location was chosen due to its proximity to Helwan, which contains mines that were once actively mined during Pharaonic times. The area has been a focus on mining since Roman times and was a prime source under the control of the British Empire from the mid-1800s until 1954 when it became one of Egypt’s nine governorates upon gaining full independence. Giza is also home to the Giza Zoo, which houses over 500 species of wild animals and birds. Giza has a number of public parks such as Gizas Al-Azhar Park with an extensive rose garden or Gizas Zoological Garden which includes Gizas largest zoo with many African and Egyptian wild animals.