a large body of water with a city in the background

Israel, which is officially known as the State of Israel, is a parliamentary democracy situated in the Middle East. The nation is strategically placed on the southeastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. Israel has multiple neighboring countries, and within its limited land mass, it encompasses a variety of geographical features.

Geographical Information

Geographical Coordinates

  • Latitude: 31.0461° N
  • Longitude: 34.8516° E


  • Northern regions: Mediterranean climate
  • Southern regions: Arid climate


  • Approximately 9.3 million (as of 2021)


  • Around $394 billion (2021 estimates)

Official Languages

  • Hebrew
  • Arabic


  • Israeli Shekel (₪)


  • Primarily Judaism


  • Asia

Countries and Territories on the Border

Israel shares its borders with several nations and regions, each having its unique geopolitical and historical context.

  1. Lebanon to the north
  2. Syria to the northeast
  3. Jordan and the West Bank to the east
  4. Egypt and the Gaza Strip to the southwest
  5. Gulf of Aqaba, an extension of the Red Sea, to the south

Form of Government

Israel functions under a parliamentary democracy. The Prime Minister serves as the head of the government, while the President acts as the head of state. The legislative branch is unicameral and is named the Knesset.

Geographical Diversity

Israel’s geographical features are notably diverse for its relatively small land area, which totals approximately 20,770 square kilometers. The northern part is characterized by mountainous terrain, including the Golan Heights and the Galilee mountain range. In contrast, the interior regions, like the Negev, are predominantly arid. Furthermore, Israel has several significant bodies of water, including the highly saline Dead Sea.

Economic Structure

Israel possesses a developed economy, significantly driven by the technology and services sectors. The country is a global leader in several technological domains, including cybersecurity, agricultural technology, and medical research. Additional economic sectors include tourism, manufacturing, and natural resources.

Religion and Cultural Landscape

Judaism is the primary religion in Israel, making the nation the historical and spiritual center for Jewish people worldwide. There are also minority religions, such as Islam, Christianity, and Druze. The culture is a mix of traditional Jewish elements blended with modern influences, featuring a wide array of art forms, cuisines, and musical genres.

Education and Technological Advancements

Israel places a substantial emphasis on education and innovation. Renowned global universities and research institutions, such as the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, are located here. The country also boasts the highest density of startups per capita globally, earning the nickname "The Startup Nation."

Military and Defense Capabilities

Israel has one of the most advanced and potent military forces in the Middle East. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) are renowned for their high training standards and cutting-edge technological equipment. Compulsory military service is required for both men and women, ensuring a robust reserve force.


Israel, formally recognized as the State of Israel, is a Middle Eastern nation known for its parliamentary democracy and remarkably diverse geographical features. Although it has a limited land area, Israel has made substantial contributions across various domains—from technology to culture. Positioned alongside numerous key countries and territories, including Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, and the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel is a significant focal point in the geopolitical landscape of the Middle East.

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